We’re back! Join Angela @axeandroothomestead & Annette @azurefarm for their second LIVE cooking class! They will cook in real time and show you how to make delicious spring-based garden-to-table recipes.
What: For this spring class we will teach you how to make homemade pasta, a delicious tart, and more!
When and Where: The class will be on Sunday March 26, 2023 from 2-4 pm via ZOOM.
How: Sign up here.
You will receive:
👩🏻🍳A box of goodies for the class (We created some beautiful and useful items specifically for this class).
🧑🍳Pantry Items + a gift card from Country Life Foods
👨🍳A booklet with all new recipes for spring. The booklet also includes homestead checklists for spring, guides on how to harvest and store your spring produce, and more.
This will be an interactive class where you cook some of the dishes alongside us!
There are LIMITED SPOTS so sign up before the class fills up.
This class is for residents of the US only (but should you really want to attend send us a DM and we will do our best to accommodate).
You can find The Harvest Table Cookbook on Amazon.com
No More Frozen Hoses in the Winter
I stopped using traditional hoses in cold weather about three years ago. Flexible, expandable hoses can be stored in a bucket and brought indoors between uses. The catch? Make sure to fully drain it before storing. Watch the video for details. There’s still plenty of cold days ahead of us so if you’re getting fed up with freezing hose lines, make the switch!
How to Reuse Hay Waste
By the end of winter, the hay barn floor is loaded with fallen hay scraps. After the dogs and cats have been sleeping on it, and foot traffic has been walking on it, I prefer not to give it to my animals. Instead, I make this scrap hay work for me by hauling it out to pasture. Hay is loaded with seed and a great way to reseed areas. As it breaks down the seeds fall to the soil’s surface while the green foliage remains as a mulch. There’s no such thing as hay waste!
After a severe hoof rot infection, my vet helped me to eliminate the bacteria and heal my sheep in just over two weeks. We use trimming, Koppertox, SugarDine, cotton pads, vet wrap and duct tape. This dressing is changed every three days, more if the sheep can not be kept in a dry area. Inflammation was reduced and the wound puss was completely gone fast!
This post is not a replacement for professional veterinary care. It is meant for educational purposes only. Have your vet monitor the infection to ensure the sheep is healing. Discontinue use if irritation occurs.
It's garden planning season! How do you know how much food to grow for canning? Well, there’s no straight answer because there’s too many variables. While canning recipes are consistent, plant yield is based on crop variety, season length, weather, soil type and quality and soil inputs. We also need to account for family consumption rate, ages, number of family members, etc.
But what we *can* do (no pun intended) to determine how much to grow is start by evaluating what you make for meals in an average week:
1. How often do you buy specific canned goods/ingredients?
2. From there, determine how many canned goods of a certain type you need.
3. Next we look at how many pieces of produce (on average) go into your desired can size.
4. Research crop variety average yields.
5. If we know how much food we need, we can better determine how many plants we need.
Here’s my calculations for what my family of four eats based on the following common items. Yours will look different and this is just an example.
Stats: 13 pounds are needed per canner load of 9 pints / 3 Tomatoes per pound /39 tomatoes in 9 pints / 4.3 tomatoes per pint / 1 plant can yield 20 tomatoes (average) / 104 pints needed
448 tomatoes needed
23 plants for preservation
+ fresh eating
= 35 PLANTS
Stats: 175g (6oz) black beans in pint / 1 pint per week / 52 pints per year
175x52 = 9100g per year
Plant yield highly variable, can’t estimate weight so go by average plants per person
20 plants per person for a year
= 80 PLANTS
Stats: 28 medium apples = 9 pints / 10 pints for the year / 280 apples
125 apples per bushel, on average
I need 2 bushels for canning + fresh eating + donation
Single semi dwarf apple tree produces up to 500 apples in a season
= 1 SEMI-DWARF APPLE TREE
Stats: 3-4 average sized cucumbers to fill pint jar / 25 pints needed for year / 12 cucumbers per plant, average
4x25 = 100 cucumbers needed
100/12 = 9 plants for canning + fresh eating + donation
= 16 PLANTS
The speed with which the fox notices a change in our routine is astounding. And so it was, last night, when I woke up at 1:30am to the sound of the vixen's call outside my bedroom window. With two guardian dogs that roam the property by night, keeping predators away from our flock of sheep and birds, it's unusual to hear our neighboring fox so close. I know exactly where she lives just over the property line by our lower field, and I've seen her kits each year from the age of young pups grow to independent hunters. Her presence isn't new, and isn't even entirely unwelcome so long as she leaves my critters alone. That's what the livestock guardian dogs are for.
When we take a vacation, the fox immediately recognizes the absence of the free-ranging dogs. Aaxlu is enclosed with his flock of ducks, geese, and guinea fowl to make sure he stays contained while we're away... and to ensure the birds are under his protection while I'm gone. Orsa takes charge of her sheep and sounds her loud bark at coyote from either the lower field or the in-out run that is attached to the sheep barn. And this is exactly the setting in which the fox found the dogs last night, for a sudden cold snap blasted the farm. This meant frozen water troughs and buckets brought on by the cold wind. I could better ensure fresh water for the dogs if they stayed enclosed with their stock; more body heat, more water disturbance, less buckets for me to crack, and stock tank heaters.
The screech was loud and just to the front of the barn which resides across the drive from my window. After every scream and chatter she sounded, the dogs began barking incessantly; frustrated at their lack of ability to chase after her. I got up and peered through my windows and, thankfully, the moon was full, casting a gentle spotlight over the pastures and yards. I could not see her but I knew exactly where she was in the shadows. Eventually the chorus of canines settled and I went back to sleep, hoping she hadn't made her way into the barn. She knows exactly where the dog and cat food is kept in large bins, and isn't deterred by metal flashing or locks. Not once did I fear for the safety of my animals.
This morning when stepping outside for breakfast rounds, the dogs were visibly agitated. I let them out of their respective fences and immediately they chased for the fox, in the direction of her den. Orsa's nose stayed to the ground following the scent, while Aaxlu charged ahead. Perhaps they remembered the cacophony from the night before, or maybe she had just passed through. But as I watched them follow the fox trail I was, yet again, reminded of the gratitude I have for the commitment and protection these two dogs provide. I could not do what I do here without them. And now that the cold snap has moved on, the dogs will resume their usual positions in tonight's occupation.
One of the greatest minds in agriculture is a guest on the HOMESTEADucation podcast today. It’s our deepest honor to talk sustainable farming and ranching with the very brilliant Dr. Temple Grandin. @temple_grandin
Angela @axeandroothomestead and Mandi @wildoakfarms are discussing her paper entitled “Grazing Cattle, Sheep, and Goats Are Important Parts of a Sustainable Agricultural Future,” which explores the importance of rotational grazing, stock density, and cover crop foraging—and understanding that every farm is different as climates are different. There is no one-size fits all approach.
You can easily find this online if you’d like to read Dr. Grandin’s work. And we hope you’ll listen to this very special episode of the @homesteaducationpodcast , available on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, Stitcher, or wherever you get your podcasts.
We leave all of the honey in the hive. Though honeybees have honey within the hive, they may not be able to move from frame to frame to reach it when it's cold. Northern beekeepers know that from now until March, honeybees are at their highest risk of starvation. One insurance policy I use to make sure my bees make it through to spring is to place sugar cakes directly on top of their frames--a cold weather alternative to 50/50 sugar syrup. It’s much easier in cold temperatures for bees to move up rather than over to the next frame. When warmer temperatures arrive, they'll go back to their honey.
⚠️ No, this doesn’t risk harming the bees, but starvation does. Work quickly to install the rim spacer and sugar cake and you should be in and out in 60 seconds or less. If it was that jarring, the bees in the video would not leave the cluster and crawl up to the sugar. They would stay clustered. A hive can be full of honey but if temps are too cold, the cluster can’t move over to a new frame. They can starve in place. This is a practice conducted by many northern, well-experienced beekeepers. This concept will not apply to warm climate apiaries.
⚠️ Please research using alternative sugars to white sugar before deciding to do so. Though it's counterintuitive, other sugars may cause harm such as honeybee dysentery because of ash content. You can learn more from this well known beekeeper here.
10 cups white sugar
2.5 cups water
1 tsp distilled white vinegar or apple cider vinegar
bread loaf moulds*
Combine all ingredients in a large stockpot over medium heat. Stir constantly until a simmer is reached. Insert candy thermometer. Continue to heat and stir until the thermometer reads 234°F. This will take a while so be patient, and continue to stir regularly. Once temperature is reached pour the sugar solution into the moulds. The sugar will continue to boil and breathe as it cools and hardens. Sugar cakes can be made in large batches, wrapped in parchment paper and stored in the refrigerator or in a cool dry place until use.
*Sugar cakes are to be placed directly on the brood frames. I use a shim/spacer/rim spacer directly above my brood box to allow space for the sugar cake. Note the size in height of the spacer/shim you are using in your hive. Mine is about 2” tall. Ensure that the amount of sugar solution you pour into each mould will not be taller than the hive spacer and will still fit within the hive. My sugar cakes are just short of 2” tall within the moulds. I then place the inner cover above my spacer.
There are some well-known and successful permaculture farmers who believe draft horses do not belong in a permaculture system. I disagree. If cattle have a place, certainly do plough horses who offer more utility and function. Here’s why I believe draft horses make a great addition to a holistic farm:
1. One draft horse can pull 2000-8000lbs
3. Meat in applicable countries
4. Gelatin/collagen in pharmaceuticals
5. Income from breeding, lessons, selling composted manure
6. Mowing by way of pasture grazing
7. Shed winter coat hair for paintbrushes
1. Manure is composted and returns nutrients to soil
2. Hoof prints make indentations in soil, creating seed and moisture collection pockets to help increase germination rates
3. Trampled cover crops during browsing return organic matter, nutrients and biomass to soil
1. Specie-specific parasite life cycles of sheep and goats are disrupted when horses rotationally graze same pastures
2. Sheep, goats, and foraging birds like ducks and chickens ingest parasites of the horse in return when rotationally grazing
3. Cover crops can be grown as forage for horses that also meet specific needs of the land (I.e. forage turnip for fodder abs to assist with soil compactions, etc.)
4. When allowed to openly graze, horses trim back overgrown growth such as Russian Olive while browsing.
A detailed presentation I created for a permaculture course through Cornell is available as a video. You can see that in the video below.
Building a strawberry cage cover is a super simple, easy and effective DIY winter gardening project. Get out in the garden (jn winter!) and protect future berries by fashioning a hinged lid to an existing raised bed. This is perfect for keeping birds out of the patch. If you have the luxury of starting a new patch, hardware cloth on the bottom of the new raised bed can prevent critters from digging underneath. An all-natural way to keep strawberries protected.
Angela is the farmer and content creator behind Axe & Root Homestead LLC. This historic six-acre permaculture farm is home to two Clydesdale horses, ten honeybee hives, five sheep, two guardian dogs, barn cats and a flock of 40 geese and ducks. The farm produces maple syrup, fruit from a small orchard and loads of garden produce for consumption, preservation and donation to the local food pantry.
The Sustainable Homestead, is out for pre-order NOW!